Chlorine Dioxide Kit Part A & Part B
Chlorine Dioxide is the product of lowering the pH of a sodium chlorite solution with an approved acid. It exists as a greenish gas at normal temperatures. The concentrated gas being formed in the mixed solution gives it an amber aspect. Chlorine Dioxide is a small, volatile molecule, that reacts with other substances by means of oxidation.
Depending on the use, and how it is formed, it is an FDA and EPA approved pesticide that can be used in food service, municipal water, mold treatment, odor treatment, medical use, mouthwashes, toothpastes, eyecare, and in personal water treatment products, among other applications. It is considered to be a more "Earth-Friendly" alternative to many chlorine applications.
Chlorine Dioxide: What it Is and How it Works
Chlorine Dioxide is produced from dropping the pH of a solution made from Sodium Chlorite and Distilled water. Typical inert ingredients found in the raw material are Sodium Sulfate, Sodium Carbonate, and Sodium Chloride (salt). There may be traces of Sodium Hydroxide, and Sodium Chlorate left over from the manufacturing process of the raw material. Industrial Grades for non EPA approved uses may contain traces of lead, mercury, and arsenic.
The term 28% Sodium Chlorite used by many people is a misnomer. It includes the inert salts, as well as the actual sodium chlorite when one uses an 80% raw material. This can vary if one is using a different raw material. For instance, if one use a 90% Sodium Chlorite as a substrate, the 28% figure would produce a different result.
Sodium Chlorite is not a natural product although some websites would like you to believe it is.. It is a manufactured chemical not found in nature. Sodium Chlorite itself has no real viable uses. It is manufactured solely as a precursor to the generation of Chlorine Dioxide. (CLO2). It is most often manufactured by what is known as the Hooker R2 Process.
Toxic Sodium Chlorate is mixed with Sodium Chloride. Sulfuric Acid is added to this, and chlorine dioxide, as well as chlorine gas is formed. The gases are separated by absorbing the soluble chlorine dioxide in chilled water towers. Sodium Hydroxide is used as well as. Hydrogen peroxide is used to form the Sodium Chlorite, and remove Sodium Chlorate. There has been an article circulating for years on eHow and Yahoo answers, about making sodium chlorite from a brine solution through electrolysis, that can be done at home. This actually produces toxic sodium chlorate and should not be attempted. There is no simple method to produce Sodium Chlorite at home.
Anhydrous Sodium Chlorite and Sodium Chlorite Solution can be safely shipped as opposed to Chlorine Dioxide Gas which can not be shipped safely, or economically. Once on site, the Sodium Chlorite is put into solution. This solution has a high pH, usually 12 +. An acid is added to lower the pH and Chlorine Dioxide is produced.
Chlorine Dioxide vs Chlorine: What's the difference?
This is the real focus of the issue, and the answer is really pretty simple. While both kill pathogens well... Chlorine Dioxide does it differently, and more efficiently, without creating toxic byproducts. Chlorine Dioxide kills by oxidation, whereas Chlorine kills by substitution, (in this case called chlorination).
Chlorine Dioxide has a lower oxidation strength than chlorine, but more than twice the oxidative capacity. Reduction/Oxidation Strength or "Redox" is a measure of how strongly an oxidizer reacts with with organic material, the higher the redox potential, the more substances the oxidizer will react with. Chlorine Dioxide has a lower redox potential than ozone, chlorine, or hypochlorus acid. Because of this lower redox potential, Chlorine Dioxide is more selective in what it reacts to. Typically Chlorine DIoxide will only react with compounds that have active carbon bonds, sulfides, cyanides, and compounds with reduced iron or manganese. Chlorine has a higher redox, and will react with a wider range of compounds, including ammonia. Because of this difference Chlorine Dioxide does not create toxic by products like chlorine does. This is why Chlorine is limited as a biocide in it's overall effectiveness as opposed to Chlorine Dioxide.
The higher oxidation capacity means that Chlorine Dioxide will remove 5 electrons from the target, whereas chlorine can only remove 2. Chlorine will bind to a pathogen, and other chemicals and compunds that may be present. Chlorine Dioxide being more selective, will not bind with other compounds. Because of this capacity, Chlorine Dioxide is more efficient than Chlorine, Ozone, or Hypochlorus Acid when used as a disinfectant. After the reaction is complete, Chlorine Dioxide reverts to chloride (salt). Chlorine forms Tri-halomathanes from reaction to ammonia, plus other byproducts from other chemicals and compounds as may be present.
Part A: Sodium Chlorite Solution
25% Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)
6% Inert Salts
69% Distilled Water (H2O)
Part B: Hydrochloric Acid Solution
4% Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
96% Distilled Water (H2O)
Chlorine DIoxide can replace a variety of cleaning products currently found in most households. Chlorine based products can create other toxic byproducts, and many anti bacterial products can create germs that are more resistant to drugs. Detergents can contain chemicals and toxins that people may be sensitive to. Chlorine DIoxide is a sensible alternative to cleaning with many of these products.
More information on the characteristics and applications for Chlorine Dioxide are readily available on the Internet. Companies such as DuPont, Lenntech, and Oxychem specialize in Chlorine DIoxide products and applications for drinking water, use as a sterilizer and disinfectant, food and agriculture, removal of biohazards, and more.
KVlabs standard 4 oz CD-Kit will contain about 2400 drops. A drop is usually between 1/20th and 1/25th of a milliliter.
Using the activators and stoichiometric ratios for our CD-Kits, 3 drops of each Part A and Part B, activated for 30 seconds will usually produce between 25 and 35 ppm of Chlorine Dioxide in 4 oz (120ml) of distilled water.
There will always be variables to take into consideration, so this is to be used as a general guide.
Most applications will require activation. This is done by first adding drops of sodium chlorite solution (Part-A) in the bottom of a small glass or plastic container. Add to this equal amounts of the activator solution (Part-B). Make sure the 2 parts mix. As activation occurs, the resulting solution will turn from pale yellow, to a darker amber. Activation time is 3 minutes. The container should be made from glass, HDPE plastic, or PET plastic. Most of the surface applications use a 15 ppm mild solution. An 8 or16 oz plastic spray bottle will work great for most applications.
These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or health condition.
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